Simulation of material conversion is a useful instrument for developers and manufacturers dealing with welding, hardening and casting. It provides broad information being essential for process optimization (cooling methods, heat source intensity etc.) and optimization of the treated parts (geometry, materials etc.).
Simulation of physical phenomenons caused by different manufacturing processes provides information on:
Thus, during simulation of a material conversion specific process statements can be made about:
During hardening of component parts by quenching in a fluid (water, oil or gas) residual stresses occur due to metallurgical effects. This has an influence on tolerances and service life. Surface treatment (laser, electron beam, etc.) can cause compressive strength increasing service life of the component regarding fatigue resistance. In this case, embrittlement zones may occur and negatively affect service life.
Mechanical Properties are chenged signifcantly during welding (spot welding, electron beam, laser beam, coated electrode, TIG welding etc.) leading to the occurence of heterogeneous multiphase zones (liquid zone, thermally altered zobe etc.) which can be accompnaied by embrittlement (presence of hydrogen).
Given the current state of technology, simulations are very complex and expensive and thus not very economical. Currently, the major focus is still on scientific prevention resp. security-relevant problems in the nuclear energy sector (welding repairs at reactor blocks.
Due to simplified processes gobal statements can be made on the distortion of welded components and the optimization of welding sequences.
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