Simulation of material conversion is a useful instrument for developers and manufacturers dealing with welding, hardening and casting. It provides broad information being essential for process optimization (cooling methods, heat source intensity etc.) and optimization of the treated parts (geometry, materials etc.).
Simulation of physical phenomenons caused by different manufacturing processes provides information on:
Development of metallurgical structrues over time
Residual stresses depending on the temperature field and distribution of different metallurgical phases
Diffusion (hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen etc.) within the structure
Thus, during simulation of a material conversion specific process statements can be made about:
Determination of thermal und metallurgical effects during welding, hardening and casting
Residual stresses in welds
Distortion caused by welding and hardening
- Automotive Industry
- Plate production
- Heat treatment of mechanical components
- Gears, crankshafts, connecting rods etc.
- Steel Industry
- Melt hardening
- Heat treatment of sheet metal products
- Power Plant Engineering
- Welding of pipe systems
- Railway Industry
- Hardening of wheels (railway vehicle fleet)
- Heat treatment of bearings etc.
- Research Centres
- metallurgical phenomena
- Process improvement
- Studies on new technologies etc.
During hardening of component parts by quenching in a fluid (water, oil or gas) residual stresses occur due to metallurgical effects. This has an influence on tolerances and service life. Surface treatment (laser, electron beam, etc.) can cause compressive strength increasing service life of the component regarding fatigue resistance. In this case, embrittlement zones may occur and negatively affect service life.
Mechanical Properties are chenged signifcantly during welding (spot welding, electron beam, laser beam, coated electrode, TIG welding etc.) leading to the occurence of heterogeneous multiphase zones (liquid zone, thermally altered zobe etc.) which can be accompnaied by embrittlement (presence of hydrogen).
Given the current state of technology, simulations are very complex and expensive and thus not very economical. Currently, the major focus is still on scientific prevention resp. security-relevant problems in the nuclear energy sector (welding repairs at reactor blocks.
Due to simplified processes gobal statements can be made on the distortion of welded components and the optimization of welding sequences.