The mathematical verification is often carried out in accordance with the AD data sheets. Simple analytical methods or simplified FEM calculations are often sufficient for the calculation.
The Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) defines the following pressure equipment:
Vessels, piping, equipment with a safety function and pressure-retaining equipment. Pressure equipment also includes any elements that may be attached to pressure-bearing parts, such as flanges, nozzles, couplings, support elements, lifting eyes, etc.
For a more detailed explanation of pressure vessels and their areas of application, please refer to the following terms.
A closed component designed and constructed to contain pressurized fluids, including directly attached parts up to the device for connection to other equipment. A vessel may have several pressure compartments.
Piping components intended for the passage of fluids and connected together for installation in a pressure system. Piping includes, in particular, pipes or pipe systems, pipe fittings, equipment parts, expansion pieces, hose lines or, where applicable, other pressure-retaining parts. Heat exchangers made of tubes for cooling or heating air are considered equivalent to piping.
Devices designed to protect the pressure equipment in the event that the allowable limits are exceeded. These devices include:
Devices with an operating function that have a pressurized housing.
Multiple pressure devices connected by a manufacturer to form a coherent functional unit.
Merkle & Partner's focus is on the calculation of more complex vessels that can no longer be calculated using the simplified approaches. The analysis is based on finite element models of arbitrary geometry. The verification can also be carried out with nonlinear behavior, plasticity of the material, inhomogeneous temperature, etc..
An evaluation of the resulting deformations and stresses can be performed according to all common norms and standards (AD2000, ASME, KTA, EuroCode, etc. ).
Calculation by means of the finite element method (FEM) helps our customers to save time and costs and can provide indications of possible weak points and optimization potential already during development.
Norms and Standards
Time-dependent pressure and temperature differences result in changing loads on the structure and thus the need for fatigue analysis.
For existing components, we support you in the damage analysis with crack propagation calculations, among other things.
Detailed structural verifications: